Saturday, May 23, 2020

School Punishments Are Ineffective And Necessary - 1916 Words

Disruptive students trudge down the hallways to the principal’s office knowing their fate as soon as they walk through the door. Detentions, suspensions, or corporal punishment are usually their options and most students hope to decrease their class time when they misbehave and detentions and suspensions accomplish this. Corporal punishment is the spanking of students which creates fear. School punishments are ineffective and need to be altered toward counseling techniques between the student committing the offense and the teacher to lower student misconduct. Background Controversy takes place when school systems facilitate familiar disciplinary action plans to students and how these punishments may or may not be the best†¦show more content†¦Teachers need to have all the time they can grasp in order to follow the curriculum for state tests (2016, p. 2) which is why schools feel detentions and suspensions sometimes take students away from learning and corporal punishments are a quick and effective punishment if allowed by parents. Most teachers claim â€Å"Discipline is necessary to keep children accountable, and to ensure that the few who refuse to follow directions do not unfairly hamper the chances of others to learn essential skills† (2016, p. 2). Because of this, corporal punishment does not take away from school time, although it is frowned upon more than detentions and suspensions. Premises When schools determine repercussions for both major and minor offenses, they should not be treated in the same manner. Typically, schools hand out suspensions for miniscule actions students partake in, such as having insubordination with a teacher, or even major offenses such as bringing a weapon to school. A distinct separation must exist between punishments because the â€Å"tough and swift ‘one-size-fits-all’ punishment has resulted in a near epidemic of out-of-school suspensions† which reveals ineffectiveness in school punishments (2012, p. 1). Disciplinary actions taken by the school systems should be geared toward the seriousness of the student’s action, not the handbook of the school.Show MoreRelatedHow Safe Are Our Children At School?1278 Words   |  6 PagesHow safe are our children at school? This question is asked every time we hear about a school violence in the United States. The federal government passed the Zero tolerance policy in 1994 whi ch required students found in possession of guns, knives, drugs and alcohol to be expelled from school. Zero Tolerance policy came into limelight in 1999 Columbine school shooting, where two students killed 13 and injured 24 others. Schools have zero tolerance policies to keep the students disciplined and toRead MoreCorporal Punishment Is Not Uncommon851 Words   |  4 Pagesbeginning of recorded history, parents have used corporal punishment as a form of discipline. Bible verses such as this instructs us that spanking as a form of corrective behavior coincides with Christian ideology. In the early stages of a child’s life, before the ability to understand reasoning and explanations, corporal punishment is necessary to correct undesirable behavior and promote discipline. In recent years, this particular form of punishment has been banned in educational institutions and usageRead More Corporal Punishment Essay895 Words   |  4 PagesCorporal punishment is a very controversi al topic that is being discussed amongst educators across the nation. Corporal punishment refers to any physical form of punishment, but in this case it refers to in schools. Currently there are many different terms used to label corporal punishment, for example, it has been called spanking, paddling, caning, lashing, popping, smacking, whipping or beating. Each term carries its own different meaning, but they all represents some form of corporal punishment. Read MoreCorporal Punishment919 Words   |  4 PagesCorporal punishment is a very controversial topic that is being discussed amongst educators across the nation. Corporal punishment refers to any physical form of punishment, but in this case it refers to in schools. Currently there are many different terms used to label corporal punishment, for example, it has been called spanking, paddling, caning, lashing, popping, smacking, whipping or beating. Each term carries its own different meaning, but they all represents some form of corporal punishment. Read MoreThe Prison System Should Be Abolished1237 Words   |  5 Pagesprison system which is a significant part of punishment is incompetent and deeply flawed in the United States. Prison system reform needs immediate attention while abolition permanently will require time. Nietzsche’s theory of punishment explains how punishment come about in society and Davis’s critique of the prison system helps back my argument that the prison system needs to be abolished. Traditionally, there have been four justifications for punishment: deterrence, confinement, rehabilitation andRead MoreReinforcement And Punishment On Children1535 Words   |  7 PagesReinforcement and Punishment are used in the classroom as well as many homes for small children. Reinforcement is the technique of inspiring or authorizing a pattern of behavior which may lead to a reward. Many children do what is right because of the positive reinforcements they may receive. In the learning environment, children look forward to reinforcement such as candy, snacks, as well as stickers or other fun activities. If positive reinforcement is used in children’s households, the childrenRead MoreCorporal Punishment Should Be Banned1459 Words   |  6 Pagesis no surprise that corporal punishment against school going children is one of the most controversial topics throughout the globe, including within political, academic, and general public debates at large. A detailed review of av ailable literature on the topic reveals that the academic discussion is divided into those who argue that corporal punishment is effective and necessary in schools, and those who argue that the risks and disadvantages of corporal punishment far outweigh its benefits. TheRead MoreDrug Testing In Schools. The Topic Of Random Drug Testing1490 Words   |  6 PagesDrug Testing in Schools The topic of random drug testing has been a very controversial one, especially in the last few years. RSDT (random student drug testing) made a rise in popularity after being legalized by the United States Supreme Court in 2006. This ruling made testing students who participate in extracurriculars or drive to school able to be tested for illegal drug abuse. This court decision is like many others in the aspect that some strongly agree and others heavily disagree. One sideRead MorePresident Richard Nixon s The War On Drugs1335 Words   |  6 PagesStarting in 1971, President Richard Nixon declared the War on Drugs. He stated, â€Å"America’s public enemy number one in the United States is drug abuse. In order to fight and defeat this enemy, it is necessary to wage a new, all-out offensive.† The War on Drugs aimed to fight against a supply and demand epidemic that had America at its knees. Nixon’s policies blatantly reflect society s attitude regarding the traffi cking of illegal narcotics. In 1973, Nixon initiated an interdiction effort in MexicoRead MoreLeadership Goals And Exercise Preferences1656 Words   |  7 Pagesexercise preferences. I planned on making a great, comprehensive workout plan everyone would like. However, trying to fit everyone’s goals and favorite workouts into the plan was unrealistic. The first workout plan I came up with was confusing and ineffective. It was useless. After realizing how impractical it was to make everyone happy I rewrote the plan in the way I thought would be most effective for meeting most people’s goals. Additionally, I incorporated as much as the input as possible and omitted

Monday, May 11, 2020

Essay about Tom Stoppards Rosencrantz and Guildenstern...

Tom Stoppards Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead Tom Stoppards Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, a humorous piece of self-reflexive theater that draws upon Shakespeares Hamlet as the source of the story. The actual device of self-reflexive theater is used so well in Stoppards play that it reads like the love child of a play and a compelling critical essay. The play is academic yet conversationally phrased and it deepens our understanding of the original play but also criticizes it. The aspect of self-reflexive theater is used to comment on theater itself but also as a presentation of ideas and analysis that had previously had no place on the plot-centric set-up of stage and audience. The essay Rosencrantz and†¦show more content†¦They go through the key plot points of Hamlet culminating in this noteworthy exchange: ROS. To sum up: your father, whom you love, dies, you are his heir, you come back to find that hardly was the corpse cold before his young brother popped onto the throne and into his sheets, thereby offending both legal and natural practice. Now why exactly are you behaving in this extraordinary manner? GUIL. I cant imagine! Stoppard is commentating on Shakespeares writing, by portraying onstage the ignorance that is required of the characters for the original plot of Hamlet to work. The meat of the scene isnt to insult the duo, but for the critically-inclined audience to analyze the sort of logical leaps we take in order to participate in a narrative. The traditional outlet for such observations were academic journals and essays but Stoppard is exhibits these ideas onstage for a mass audience. The Player exemplifies my point (bloated and wriggling as it is) of the unique space that Stoppard is trying to occupy with the play. The Player is at once detached and involved in the happenings onstage (textual evidence? How about on page 25 when Guildenstern and the Player discuss fate. Guildenstern asks Yours [fate] or ours? The Player answers It could hardly be one without the other). The Player, in my opinion, diffusesShow MoreRelatedHidden Meanings from the Three Messages in Tom Stoppards play Rosencrantz Guildenstern are Dead540 Words   |  3 Pages If one was to simply try and watch Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz Guildenstern are Dead without any background knowledge or familiarity of Shakespeare’s play Hamlet, then my enjoy the wit and foolishness of the characters but wouldn’t understand the underlying messages. Tom Stopard’s idea of what two side characters in Hamlet do when they’re not in the main play by Shakespeare is very interesting. Rosencrantz Guildenstern are Dead follows these two characters on their journey to questioning manyRead MoreRosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead versus Hamlet Essay1101 Words   |  5 PagesRosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, written in the 1960s by playwright Tom Stoppard, is a transforation of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Stoppard effectively relocates Shakespeare’s play to the 1960s by reassessing and revaluating the themes and characters of Hamlet and considering core values and attitudes of th e 1960s- a time significantly different to that of Shakespeare. He relies on the audience’s already established knowledge of Hamlet and transforms a revenge tragedy into an Absurd drama, whichRead MoreRosencrantz And Guildenstern, By William Shakespeare Essay1420 Words   |  6 Pages Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead begins with confusion and ends in bewilderment. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are minor characters in Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Stoppard takes Rosencrantz and Guildenstern out of the Hamlet reality and creates a new world for them, a world where they are lead characters. However, in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern’s new reality, limitations and constraints arise. Many of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern’s adventures and actions have already been written byRead MoreThe Important Message in the Play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead by Tom Stoddard822 Words   |  4 Pageswithout messages intertwined within the story line. Tom Stoppard is a master of this technique which is shown throughout his play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead. This is a play about two gentlemen who are from William Shakespeare’s play Hamlet. Stoppard writes this play expecting readers to know the play Hamlet extremely well; some parts of the play are even performed within Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead. However, this is a play about two dead men walking; readers who know the play HamletRead MoreRosencrantz And Guildenstern Are Dead And Hamlet Analysis1294 Words   |  6 Pageseven attempt to. In Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, the main characters, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, engage in philosophical conversations about the afterlife and free-will vs fate. In Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Stoppard depicts similar themes as in Shakespeares Hamlet, such as fate vs destiny, what reality is, and both perceive death differently. Also, Stoppard takes scenes of confusion from Shakespeare and expands the identities of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. In both playsRead MoreRosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead700 Words   |  3 PagesHamlet was one of two inspirations for Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. I believe the play Hamlet was a little absurd, especially in the extreme role vengeance played, and how almost every character died in the end. Nothing was really accomplished in the play Hamlet, except how Fortinbras reclaimed his land. There was not a good guy in Hamlet or a philosophy that the reader should be able to support, much like in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. The end of Hamlet was surprisingly hopefulRead MoreComparing Shakespeare s Hamlet With Play And Argue For Or Against Stoppard s Vision1073 Words   |  5 PagesAndrew Harris Ms. McMakin English 4, 6 19 May 2015 You are to compare and contrast Shakespeare’s Hamlet with Tom Stoppard’s play and argue for or against Stoppard’s vision (1000 words minimum). To Search for Death No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven do not want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invitation of Life. It is Life s changeRead More Taken from Hamlet, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead by Tom Stoddard775 Words   |  4 Pageswestern thought. Tom Stoppard took advantage of how widely known the play was and wrote his own play entitled, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, as a ploy off of the final lines of the play Hamlet. Stoppard’s play is â€Å"a play within a play† to some extent; he took two of Shakespeare’s flat characters and gave them life. The play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead follows the story of Hamlet’s friends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in their journey through the play Hamlet. Tom Stoppard’s play RosencrantzRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Hamlet And Tom Stoppard s Rosencrantz And Guildenstern Are Dead2522 Words   |  11 PagesA Play Interpreted In The Eyes of Two Fools William Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, are contrasting plays with a variety of similarities. Shakespeare’s Hamlet was written between the years 1599 to 1602 and is a play about tragedy set in the Kingdom of Denmark. Hamlet is about the young prince of Denmark, Hamlet, seeking revenge against his uncle, Claudius, for succeeding the throne after murdering his father, King Hamlet, and immediately marrying hisRead MoreWaiting for Godot and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead: The Theatre of the Absurd803 Words   |  4 Pagesplays Waiting for Godot written by Samuel Beckett and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead written by Tom Stoppard both incorporate human needs and concerns within their context through its whimsical and comedic dialogues. Both plays belong in the category of the theatre of the absurd, where the existentialist philosophy underlies all aspects of the plays. The central characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern from Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead share a deep friendship, this same friendship can

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Ethnic Conflicts Free Essays

Recent changes in American society have resulted in increasing number of minority students enrolling in colleges and universities. Differing views among these ethnic groups can sometimes cause conflicts for students of all races (Cozic 249). Some argue that students and universities benefit from these ethnic conflicts. We will write a custom essay sample on The Ethnic Conflicts or any similar topic only for you Order Now Same time others believe that increasing racial diversity in American colleges and university has led to a decrease in the quality of education. People who support multiculturalism in universities believe that â€Å"students who can resolve conflict in racially diverse universities will be better prepared to succeed than students at universities that are more homogeneous†(Cozic 249). Conflict is expected, perhaps even healthy, in a social situation where people have different interests and compete for scarce resources (Duster 251). Some American schools are racially integrated, so â€Å"it is not surprising that students experience shock and tension when they arrive at their first experience of multiculturalism†(251). But shocks like this maybe a good preparation for future life. According to Duster, nowadays students are â€Å"far more competent, far more eligible, far more prepared than when this [Berkley] was an all-white university in 1950†³(252). Back in 1960s , when the campus was mainly white, almost every eligible student who applied to Berkley was admitted (252). But â€Å"when the United States changed its immigration laws in the 1970s, well-qualified candidates from China, Hong Kong, and Korea swelled the pool of applicants†(252). Suddenly, not everyone who was eligible could get in (252). The increasing number of minorities applying to universities created â€Å"increasingly ferocious competition at the same-sized admissions gate†(252). The media, so far has chosen to emphasize the beleaguered white student who has to adjust to affirmative action (252). Isn†t it a shame, stories imply, that these students are feeling uncomfortable in an environment that used to be their university (252). It isn†t theirs anymore (252). Since the demographics of the United States are changing at a fast rate, â€Å"shouldn†t the university population and curriculum reflect more of this new reality? â€Å"(252 – 53). Meanwhile, the quality of students at universities is only getting better. Duster implies that affirmative action exists because, â€Å"over the past two hundred years, blacks and Latinos have had a difficult time entering higher education, and that legacy hasn†t gone away†(253). There are economic barriers that restrict access to college for minorities. And these barriers aren†t disappearing. The smartest among them [Berkley students] also see that in a globalized economy, Berkley†s multiculturalism can make them better leaders†¦. (254). The opponents of cultural diversity believe that â€Å"affirmative action favors minorities whose average academic performance is unacceptably below university standards†(Cozic 257). D†Souza argues that the question is not whether universities should seek diversity but what kind of diversity. It seems that the primary form of diversity which universities should try to foster is diversity of mind (D†Souza 258). He says that â€Å"such diversity would enrich academic discourse, widen its parameters, multiply its objects of inquiry, and increase the probability of obscure and unlikely terrain being investigated†(258). According to D†Souza, the problem begins with a deep sense of embarrassment over the small number of minorities – blacks in particular – on campuses. University officials speak of themselves as more enlightened and progressive than the general population, so they feel guilty if the proportion of minorities at their institution is smaller than in surrounding society (259). As a consequence, universities agree to make herculean efforts to attract as many blacks, Hispanics, and other certified minorities as possible to their institutions (259). The number of minority applicants who would normally qualify for acceptance at selective universities is very small; therefore, in order to meet ambitious recruitment targets, affirmative action must entail fairly drastic compromises in admissions requirements (259). University leaders are willing to use unjust means to achieve their goal of equal representation, says D†Souza. For example, â€Å"the California legislature is considering measures to require all state colleges to accept black, Hispanic, white, and Asian students in proportion with their level in the population, regardless of disparity in academic preparation or qualifications among such groups† (259). Many selective universities are so famished for minority students that they will accept virtually anyone of the right color (260). For minority students, who struggled through high school, the courtship of selective universities comes as a welcome surprise. During their freshman year, many minority students discover that they are not prepared to the college work load and it is hard to keep up with another students. For minority students, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, these problems are often complicated by a difficult personal adjustment to a new environment (261). University leaders have discovered how displaced and unsettled minority freshmen can be, and typically respond by setting up counseling services and remedial education programs intended to assure blacks and Hispanics that they do belong, and that they can â€Å"catch up† with other students (261). For many minority undergraduates the university†s quest for racial equality produces a conspicuous academic inequality (261). In the minds of minority students, affirmative action is not a cause of their academic difficulties, but an excuse for white racism which is the real source of their problems (263). How to cite The Ethnic Conflicts, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Western Experience to the Eighteenth Century

Introduction Cut off from the rest of the globe, with practically no knowledge of their neighborhoods, the goals of most individuals are to spread out their territories ultimately forming an empire and then eventually, overcoming the world. Traditionally, man has always tried to exert influence on fellow men and ever since in the early days the world was ruled through empires and kingdoms which had kings, queens, and emperors.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Western Experience to the Eighteenth Century specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These kingdoms had great contribution to the present system of ruling as they provided the foundation of how countries or subjects are governed. Among the positive contributions that the early empires made are associated with civilization and other great discoveries. For example, the Roman Empire is associated with the engineering and the invention of cement while the Greeks are ass ociated with democracy, civilization, philosophy, and mathematics. Discuss the Problem of Empire in the Ancient World The main problems that faced the earliest empires were how governance[1], avoiding invasions by other stronger and emerging kingdoms. These problems existed due to the fact that rival empires were growing and expanding and risks of traitors within the kingdom were high as well as attacks from rival empires. To rule successfully, the emperors had to cultivate loyalty from their subjects to ensure his citizens could guard and protect the empire. This called for the emperors to employ different strategies on how to ensure that their subjects maintained loyalty at the same time remaining united for the sake of recognition and the power of the empire. Opposition and internal revolts within the empire was another problem that the early empires faced this made some of the rulers become to harsh to their subjects in order to ensure loyalty was observed. How Did the First Emp ires Come About? The first empires are said to have come as a result of civilization, democracy and rule of law. The strong and the influential people in the society became the rulers by associating with people who believed in their views thus creating a following. They ruled these empires through political and social organizations. Another factor that led to the emergence of the early empires was the invention of gunpowder. Kingdoms attacked and captured rival and empires at will making them part of their own. For example the Ottoman Empire emerged in 1350as a result of use of gun powder and by the early 1500 through the use of artillery, the ottomans had expanded even to Iraq. Trade was another factor that led to the emergence of the early empires. It is worthy noting that some of the early empires were established within trade routes. Trade centers were established and with time these trade centers became empires.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What were the strengths and weaknesses of the universal empires of Assyria and Persia? Assyrian Empire Strengths The major strength of the Assyrian empire has always been attributed to its effective and organized army. They are widely regarded as the first organized and well trained armies in the world history. The army used superior weapons and was also well disciplined. They also had the capability of using different kinds of military tactics which led to the emergence of the empire army as one of the strongest at that time. Weaknesses One of the major weaknesses that led to the collapse of the empire was the failure by the kingdom to solve the Babylonian problem by ending the continuing conflicts. These conflicts weakened the kingdom to the extent that Babylonians who had been seen as a weak empire were able to conquer Egypt out of the Assyrians hands. Another factor that could have led to the weakness of the Assyria ns was the fact that their rulers were cruel and harsh to their own subjects and this contributed to growing discontentment among the Assyrians. Persian Empire Strengths While the Assyrians were known to be cruel and harsh, the Persians were known to institute a rule that was relatively less incriminating and demanding. Thus, their success in ruling the western Asia and ruling them for a period of two centuries was not only due to their outstanding military qualities and man power resources but also due to how they ruled their subjects. The requirement that all the Persians serve in the army under a form of universal conscription made the Persian army such strong by providing the required manpower in case of war with the other empires. The Persian Empire was also the largest by geographical content but despite this the empire was centralized and thus chances of divisions were very low. The king was a very important person in keeping the empire together and despite some of the revolt s which were experienced, the empire was never threatened. The rivalry between the rulers under the king also ensured the kingdom succeeded as it was difficult for any conspiracy development against the central authority among them. Weaknesses The stagnation of the Persian army in making technology advancement led to its fall to the Greco-Macedonian army. The death of Alexandria was another source of the empire kingdom. Since after his death the army commanders began dividing the kingdom and thus reliance on manpower could not be relied on during the warsAdvertising We will write a custom essay sample on Western Experience to the Eighteenth Century specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How did the Greeks Fail at Empire yet Succeed at Civilization? The failure of the Greeks at the empire level was mainly due to the conflict among its groups. These groups never cooperated even during the times of conflict and this was a major weakness t o the empire. For example the conflict between the Spartans and the Athens was one of the signs that the Greek empire was on the verge of collapsing. When the Spartans conquered the Athens and started placing their rules on them it resulted in revolts against the Spartans dominance by both the Athens and the Thebes. These conflicts led to the weakening of the kingdom and for example by the end of the conflict between the Spartans and the Athens, there was no group that was strong enough to unite the other members of the empire. Driven by traditional separatism and the desire for own independence, uniting the Greek states was quite a problem. The enmity which existed could not allow the states to help one another and thus rather than uniting in the verge of a disaster some remained neutral while others hoped for the punishment and destruction of rival groups within the empire leading to the failure of the kingdom[2]. However, the cultures of Greeks evolved to create the most glorious civilization of the ancient world. The kingdom led in art, philosophy, political culture and science. The phase commonly known as the archaic period saw the advancements in political supposition and the beginning of egalitarianism as well as art and culture. After the fall of Mycenaean civilization, the Greeks formed small tribes of which some were agricultural and others were nomadic. In their bid to succeed and outdo the other groups, these agricultural and nomadic groups developed technologies which increased their productivity and thus the advancements in civilization. These ethnic groups made one of the supreme Greece (political) accomplishments. The Greek tribes came together and developed strong city states with each state establishing its own culture and political structure and thus while it was hard for them to adopt the culture or the political structure of the other state, they succeeded highly at civilization How Did The Roman Empire Arise Out Of A Crisis, Create More C rises, And Yet Survive Several Crises? The crisis The kingdom slipped into anarchy after the assassination of Commodus whose death brought about civil war within the empire. As if that was not enough, his successor was also murdered and the office put on auction by the body guard leading to various people buying the office but none succeeding at ruling the empire and this led to succession battles. The rulers who followed tried to increase the emperor’s authority and preserve the unity within the empire and this resulted to an army monarch where state intervention was carried out with ruthless severity. The people charged with law enforcement became selfish and those who opposed the system were physically harassed bringing about widened uprisings within the realm.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The cities which were now centers of civil and military administration became parasitic in a way and their contribution to the economy was just the consumption of farm produce. The end users were, nearly without exemption, either armed forces barracks or local majestic (civil) servants. The state was required to drive the economy but no one was willing or cared about the situation. Thus, as the state broke down so did the Roman economy come to a stop and collapsed. The slaves who used to flood the kingdom were nowhere to be seen and thus the availability of the cheap labor was no longer a guarantee. By the start of the 3rd century, depopulation and disturbance caused by attacks, epidemics, and general turn downs in fertility had resulted in a demographic disintegration. This exposed how the kingdom was ineffective and profligate through its (Latifundia) system. The previous access to labor at no cost had hampered technological advancements in the agriculture sector and with the nona ppearance of slaves, the deficiency in manpower led to curtailed productivity in the empire. The currency devaluation along with increased supply of the valuable metals brought about (rapid) inflation also increasing the cost of basic commodities within the empire. As the political and military organization of the kingdom collapsed, people localized and the empire became of less importance to its citizens. The Revival of the Empire The revival of the empire was brought about when the stability was restored; the army was reorganized by building huge reserves for their support, their source of food and income was guaranteed. After the demise of Severus Alexander, the ruler powers were fundamentally cut due to the suspicions and fears that if too much power was given to the emperors the kingdom could ride back to anarchy as earlier experienced. The roman citizens did not see the royal leaders as gods as they had been seen before and too much power was yielded to the citizens rather tha n on the rulers. This new emerging empire at the beginning of the 4th century was not similar to that of the past. Particularly in the western side of the empire, what previously could have been described as the Roman civilization underwent huge changes the empire was now characterized by strong presence of army in every place. While in the past the army was concentrated along the borders with the cities and interior having none of their presence, they were now felt everywhere. After Diocletian, the old cities were made more secure by surrounding them with huge walls often from the old debris of the old houses and other structures which had been demolished. Coloni and Serfs took the slaves position in a bid to arrest manpower shortage. Though they (serfs and coloni) had freedom, they two groups were supposed to remain in these estates as they were tied by to pay rents and taxes. What caused the ultimate failure of the western portion of the Roman Empire, and what were its consequenc es? Imperial expansion increased the power of military commanders and to them; they viewed this as an opportunity to seize political power from the civil authorities. In return, this resulted in the rulers accumulating enormous wealth brought about through corruption. Aristocracy was also diverted from civic duties and social duties towards pursuit of wealth and sensual gratification. Growth of slavery propelled by the large number of war captives served in the enlarging farm and estates. The rich grabbed the land which belonged to the poor peasants and this brought about resentment within the kingdom and it made the peasants become mercenaries since they has nothing to do. There was also the widening gap between the rich and the poor, the empire neglect of its military and civic duties provided opportunities for ambitious army generals to enlist for support from fellow soldiers and the discontented masses and this was translated to a cycle of factionalism and civic strife which led to military dictatorships. At its last stage the western empire found had become impoverished, depopulated, and stripped off its territories by the encompassing barbarians whose military skills and dynamism were superior to Romans artillery. We can summarize that the fall of the Roman Empire took a few centuries due to the slow disappearance of liberty and the decline of private and public confidence on the kingdom. The civil wars that brought the kingdom down were as a result of the lost confidence. â€Å"At the same time, the disappearance of liberty further accelerated the decline of virtue itself. Without the risks, responsibilities, and challenges of freedom, public and private virtue gradually withered, facilitating the Empire’s general decline†[3]. The empires centralization policy and the uniformity impositions which were later followed by elimination of mediating structures between the civilians and the authority also brought the kingdom to a further decline. The growing appetite of the government for revenues also led to the decline of the kingdom. The various taxes which existed and included levies on land and personal income were another major factor due to the simple fact that the hardest affected were the ordinary and most productive citizens. Eventually, the taxes became so high that in most parts of the empire the farmers abandoned their lands and refused to till them so as to avoid the ever increasing taxes, as the taxes increased so was the bureaucracy level. This led to low populations as most of the empire citizens avoided giving birth leading even to the emperor allowing the gothic to stay permanently in the kingdom due to the dwindling population. Christianity also led to the decline of the Roman Empire[4]. The Christian teachings contrasted against the Roman society pillars. Since the reason of fighting anymore was not there, they already had a defined end; the question was just when the end would come. Conclusion From the above study, we can conclude that the end of the early empires was brought about by many factors depending with the situations. For example, the Roman Empire collapsed as a result of bad govern-ship while others collapsed due to internal conflicts whereas the Persian Empire started weakening after the death of Alexandria. Some say history can repeat itself and thus it is advisable to learn from these empires how they rose and collapsed. Bibliography of notes How to rule their subjects successfully containing any internal revolt that may lead to the destabilization of the empire Marko, Marelich. â€Å"Ancient Greek Civilization in the Fifth Century.† San Francisco, California-USA, 2006. Web. Edward, Gibbons. The history of the Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. (New York: The Modern Library, 2003 p.104). Edward, Gibbons. The history of the Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. (New York: The Modern Library, 2003 p. 104). Bibliography Gibbons. Edward. The history of the D ecline and fall of the Roman Empire. New York: The Modern Library, 2003. Marelich, Marko. â€Å"Ancient Greek Civilization in the Fifth Century.† San Francisco, California-USA, 2006. Web. Footnotes How to rule their subjects successfully containing any internal revolt that may lead to the destabilization of the empire Marko. Marelich. â€Å"Ancient Greek Civilization in the Fifth Century.† San Francisco, California-USA, 2006. Edward, Gibbons. The history of the Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. (New York: The Modern Library, 2003 p.104). Edward, Gibbons. The history of the Decline and fall of the Roman Empire. (New York: The Modern Library, 2003 p. 104). This essay on Western Experience to the Eighteenth Century was written and submitted by user Lewis Delaney to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Infectious Diarrhoea Essays

Infectious Diarrhoea Essays Infectious Diarrhoea Essay Infectious Diarrhoea Essay Infectious Diarrhoea is a Major Cause of Global Mortality. Discuss. Introduction Infectious diarrhea has been a major cause of planetary morbidity and mortality, peculiarly in immature kids in developing states where medical resources and living conditions are hapless. Harmonizing to statistics, about 2.2 million kids will decease from diarrhea and related diseases this twelvemonth, 80 % of them in the first two old ages of their life ; 42,000 a hebdomad, 6,000 a twenty-four hours, 4 every minute, 1 every 14 seconds. [ 1 ] A big assortment of viruses, bacteriums and parasites are responsible for doing infective diarrhea. Statisticss show that 40 % instances of travelers diarrhea are due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, 22 % instances caused by unknown pathogens, 10 % instances caused by Shigella spp. and enterohamemorrhagic Escherichia coli, another 10 % caused by virus, and the remainder caused by Protozoa and other species. [ 2 ] The major path of transmittal of these enteropathogens is via fecal to unwritten contact, and besides via contaminated nutrient e.g. natural meat, H2O e.g. domestic H2O supplies, and via human to human contact e.g. adumbrate sexual contact such as oral-anal sex. Syndromes There are three major clinical syndromes of infective diarrhea ; these include acute watery diarrhea, dysentery and relentless diarrhea. Acute watery diarrhea as its name suggests is the transition of watery stools more often than normal, and frequently is accompanied by symptoms such as sickness, emesis, and abdominal uncomfortableness. It normally consequences from stomach flu, which is the redness of the GI piece of land. Normally a healthy person would retrieve within 5 to10 yearss. However for persons who have weaker immune system such as the immature, aged and those infected with HIV, it could be a dangerous issue, since it causes terrible desiccation. In immature persons and babies, rotavirus infection is the most common cause of acute watery diarrhea, and has symptoms of a febrility and mild jobs in the respiratory system, followed by diarrhea and emesis. Dehydration and metabolic acidosis would continue if fluid and electrolyte are non replaced. The degree of desiccation could be assessed clinically by the doing observations of the tegument tone and tissue turgour, waterlessness of the mucous membrane membran e, and the depression of the anterior soft spot. In grownups, the bacteria E. coli is the most common cause of acute watery diarrhea, and has symptoms of febrility, abdominal hurting, and sickness. These symptoms normally persist for 3 to 5 yearss, and terrible desiccation is non common in grownups but is common if it had occurred in immature babies. Dysentery diarrhea is when blood and Pus are present in the fecal matters, accompanied by symptoms of anorexia, hurting, febrility, and abdominal hurting, normally ensuing from amendss done to the big bowel by the microorganisms. Dysentery diarrhea can be divided into two major types, amboetic dysentery and bacillary dysentery. Amboetic dysentery is caused by the ameba Entamoeba histolytica ; it may be transmitted via tainted nutrient and H2O. Amoeba signifier morbific cysts in fecal matters and it may distribute if a individual touches the fecal matters and somehow ingests it. Bacillar dysentery consists of chiefly three bacterial groups, which are Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella enterica. Alternatively, dysentery could be caused by medicines for illustration steroids, which disrupts the intestine motion. Persistent diarrhea is merely characterised as diarrhea that has continued for more than 14 yearss. Most instances of relentless diarrhea seem to be associated with the same pathogens that cause ague diarrhea. This is backed up by surveies done in India, Bangladesh and Peru, which found that rotavirus ; Campylobacter and Shigella are every bit common in acute and relentless diarrhea. [ 3 ] Several factors could hold a major impact on the likeliness of relentless diarrhea ; these include the old diarrhea infection, the nutritionary position and interestingly the eating pattern. Surveies have found that kids who have improper nutrition or an deficient diet, have an increased hazard of holding drawn-out episode of persistant diarrhea, this increases the hazard of them deceasing. [ 3 ] Furthermore, surveies have found that suckling lowers the continuance of diarrhoeal episodes. For illustration, in Peru, babies aged from 9 to 11 months who were non breastfed had mean diarrheal continuanc es 49 per centum longer than those breastfed continuously. [ 3 ] One account for this is because diarrhea worsens the ability of the baby to digest lactose, a substance found in carnal milk ; hence as a concatenation consequence, this worsens and prolongs the effects of diarrhea. Mechanisms There are two major mechanisms that enable a pathogen to bring on infective diarrhea, which is either an increased enteric secernment of fluid and electrolytes predominately in the little bowel, or a reduced soaking up of fluid, electrolytes and sometimes foods that can affect little or big bowel. Increased enteric secernment Cholera Cholera is an acute infection of the GI piece of land caused by the comma-shaped Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio cholera. The disease has a long history characterised by epidemics and pandemics. Cholera produces cholera toxin, which is the model for enterotoxin. Possibly the most astonishing characteristic about cholera toxin is that it switches on secernment without damaging the enterocyte. Basically, cholera toxin has two major parts, the first is a pentameric protein that binds to the surface of the enteric epithelial tissue, and the 2nd is an ADP-ribosylation enzyme which ribosylates the Gs alpha fractional monetary unit of the hetertrimeric G protein doing constituent camp production. This leads to an addition in secernment of chloride and H2O into the lms of the bowel. Hence rapid desiccation would happen. The cholera being requires extra virulency factors to enable it to last the host defense mechanisms and adhere to the enteric mucous membrane. For illustration, a big figure of the beings are required to be ingested since it is sensitive to stomach acid, and colonization of little bowel depends on the polar scourge production of mucinase fond regard to specific receptors. Symptoms caused by cholera include watery non-bloody diarrhea known as rice H2O stool because of its visual aspect ; this can ensue in the loss of one liter of fluid per hr. This unstable loss causes electrolyte instability which in bend lead to terrible desiccation, acidosis and perchance hypvolemic daze taking to cardiac failure. Decreased enteric soaking up Rotavirus Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the household Reoviridae. It is the 1 of the taking, individual cause of terrible diarrhea in babies and immature kids. [ 4 ] Almost every kid in the universe has been infected with this virus at least one time by the age of five. [ 5 ] In malice of this, unsusceptibility develops against this virus so farther infections are less serious, [ 6 ] hence there is really small opportunity that an grownup would be affected. [ 7 ] Rotavirus could be divided into seven species: A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Rotavirus A is the most common, and do 90 % of infection in human, with a contact of killing about 500,000 kids every twelvemonth, [ 8 ] and doing more than 2 million to be become highly ill. [ 9 ] The mechanism by which rotavirus invades and replicated is summarised as follows: First, rotavirus infects enterocytes of the villi of the little bowels, this cause a alteration in construction and map of the epithelial tissue. [ 11 ] This leads to malabsorption of the epithelial tissue, therefore enteric soaking up would be greatly decreased. One utile feature that Rota virus has is its ternary protein coats, doing them resistant to the acidic pH of the tummy and the digestive enzymes in the intestine. A cyst called endosome is formed after the virus enters the cell by receptor mediated endocytosis. A concentration gradient of Ca is achieved when the protein in the 3rd bed, called VP4 and VP7 spike interrupt the membrane of the endosome. Subsequently VP7 pruners are broken down into individual protein fractional monetary units, hence VP2 and VP6 protein coats are left around the viral dsRNA to organize a double-layered atom. The staying 11 dsRNA protected by the two protein shells are so able to bring forth transcripts of the two-base hit stranded viral genome, by utilizing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. By concealing in the nucleus, the viral RNA could avoid RNA intervention induced by the host s immune response. From here on, rotavirus could bring forth messenger RNA for both protein biogenesis and cistron reproduction. Diagnosis Diagnosis is normally non needed in the bulk of acute watery diarrhea since it normally resolves within a few yearss. However diagnosing would be required in more serious episodes such as dysentery, and relentless diarrhea where it could take to decease. Normally stool microscopy and civilization is used since it is the cheapest and simplest diagnosing compared to other techniques. This normally involves the examining of stool samples under a light microscope by an experient perceiver and so cultured for bacterial enteropathogens. Particular dyes are used to help sensing of cysts and spores of the pathogen. Microscopy is peculiarly of import in placing the undermentioned species: Crytosporidum parvum, Gaiardia intestinalis, Cyclospora cayetansis and Entamoeba histolytica. Alternatively, serodiagnosis could be used to place the pathogen. This involves proving the blood serum for specific antibodies. However this technique is merely utile in certain species, such as Y enterocolitica and is really time-consuming. Treatment There are several types of intervention for diarrhea. The first and most common therapy is the unwritten rehydration therapy ( ORT ) which involves replacing the fluid and electrolytes via the unwritten path. The solution given is called the unwritten rehydration solution which normally consists of glucose-electrolyte solutions. This therapy has helped many patients enduring from terrible diarrhea by forestalling desiccation and acidosis. Alternatively, solutions which contain a high Na content ( e.g. soup ) , a high glucose content ( e.g. fruit juice ) , and a high saccharide content ( e.g. pasta ) could assist by bettering the glucose-sodium co-transport mechanism. Anti-diarrhoeal drugs have been developed to cut down stool frequence, volume and symptoms such as abdominal hurting. These could be divided into anti-motility agents and anti-secretary agents. Anti-motility agents, for illustration Loperamide, work by increasing enteric theodolite clip and promoting the resorption of electrolytes. Despite holding the advantage of cut downing fecal production, loperamide has possible side effects impacting the cardinal nervous system and the respiratory system ; hence it is non used in immature babies. On the other manus anti-secretary drugs, which are drugs aimed to aim and suppress straight the secretary processes within the enterocyte, are still at an early phase of development. Antimicrobial intervention such as antibiotic therapy could assist cut down the badness of diarrhea but is merely recommended for a limited scope of infections, for illustration, cholera, dysenteric bacillary dysentery, pseudo membranous enterocolitis and those due to parasites, and sexually familial diseases. Mention 1. hypertext transfer protocol: //rehydrate.org/diarrhoea/ 2. Handszuh H, Waters SR. Travel and touristry forms. In: DuPont HL, Steffen R, eds. Textbook of travel medical specialty and wellness. Dekker: 3. hypertext transfer protocol: //rehydrate.org/dd/su48.htm # 10 4. Dennehy PH ( 2000 ) . Transmission of rotavirus and other enteral pathogens in the place . 5. Velazquez FR, Matson DO, Calva JJ, Guerrero L, Morrow AL, Carter-Campbell S, Glass RI, Estes MK, Pickering LK, Ruiz-Palacios GM ( 1996 ) . Rotavirus infections in babies as protection against subsequent infections . 6. Linhares AC, Gabbay YB, Mascarenhas JD, Freitas RB, Flewett TH, Beards GM ( 1988 ) . Epidemiology of rotavirus subgroups and serotypes in Belem, Brazil: a three-year survey . 7. Bishop RF ( 1996 ) . Natural history of human rotavirus infection . 8. World Health Organization. Rotavirus vaccines place paper. 9. Simpson E, Wittet S, Bonilla J, Gamazina K, Cooley L, Winkler JL ( 2007 ) . Use of formative research in developing a cognition interlingual rendition attack to rotavirus vaccine debut in developing states . 10. 1: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image: Rotavirus_replication.png 11. Greenberg HB, Clark HF, Offit PA ( 1994 ) . Rotavirus pathology and pathophysiology .

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Free Cover Letter Sample for Marketing Job

Free Cover Letter Sample for Marketing Job SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The writer of this cover letter works in marketing, so hopefully he's able to market for himself with a strong cover letter! As you'll see below, the applicantuses a list format to presenthis professional skills and draw direct connections with the job's requirements. Read on to see how the applicant describeshis experiences,and then continue on to an analysis of what this sample cover letter does well. Cover Letter Sample for Marketing Manager Position Bran Starkman5 Tree LaneSnowtown, CO 80001 May 1, 2016 Cecily LannisterDirector of MarketingKing Co.10 Landing St.Sunnyvale, CA 94085 Dear Ms. Lannister, I’m writing to express my strong interest in joining King Co.’s team as Marketing Manager, an opportunity I discovered on Monster.com. King Co. takes such an innovative approach to itsmarketing, and I would love to contribute toits progressive vision.With my five years of experience in marketing management, I havethe skills and knowledge to excel in this role. Please allow me to highlight my qualifications as they related to your stated requirements. Your Requirements My Experience Marketing degree, 3 years exp. Obtained my BA in Marketing Communication in 20 and have three years of experience as an SEO Content Marketing Manager Skilled with content strategy development and implementation Developed and executed SEO strategy that achieved top 3 rankings on Google for key product search terms; led team that expanded unique visitors from 10k/month to 2 million/month in one year Social media guru Maintained editorial calendar across social media platforms; oversaw 30% increase in Facebook and Twitter shares; synchronized social media posts with content publication Professional, personable, and passionate 3 years of successful content team management while maintaining strong interpersonal relationships; devoted to fostering open communication and supporting growth of team members I’ve attached my resume to flesh out my professional background as Marketing Manager, along with two letters of recommendation. I’m very excited about this opportunity with King Co. and look forward to speaking with you soon. Please don’t hesitate to contact me at 508-508-5080 or bran.starkman@gmail.com. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely, Bran Starkman Bran Starkman508-508-5080 bran.starkman@gmail.com Bran says he's skilled with content; did this skill come through in his cover letter? Marketing Manager Cover Letter: The Breakdown Bran took a bullet point approach to his cover letter, using a list to match the position’s stated requirements with his own qualifications in a form that’s sometimes referred to as an executive briefing. Visually, this format makes his letter easy to read and understand. He showed an understanding of the position by explicitly listing its requirements, and he provided specific examples of his professional accomplishments with data. Bran's measured approach seems to work well for the position of marketing manager, which also requires a high degree of organization and the use of metrics to measure impact. Bran’s cover letter hits the four key features described in our cover letter guide - it’s customized to the job at hand, it uses specific examples, it communicates enthusiasm, and it’s highly readable. Bran includes his and the hiring manager's contact information at the top, so presumably he's sending his cover letter as a hard copy or Word document attachment. Hopefully, his cover letterwill land Bran an interview with King Co. Before you check out more cover letter samples, consider the followingimportant note on format. A Note on Format Before addressing the hiring manager, Bran provided a header with his name and contact information at the top of his cover letter. He also added the date and contact details of Ms. Lannister. This kind of formatting is traditional for cover letters, and it still works well if you're sending your letter by hard copy or as a Word attachment. Many jobs, though, expect you to paste your cover letter in the body of an email or in a text box on their application portal. If you're sending your letter this way, then you can usually leave off these headers. They're more applicable if you can format your letter with a certain look. If you're going the plain text body of email or text box approach, then you can just start right in with the salutation. As you finalize the look of your cover letter, consider how you're sending it, along with any application instructions. Then let that method guide your cover letter's final look! What's Next? Are you ready to read another cover letter? Check out this sample cover letter for the job of Editorial Assistant with a publishing company. Would you like tolearn more about cover letters? Our full guide has great tips on writing cover letters, along with five more samples! Are you wondering how to structure your letter? Our cover letter template guides you through the writing process, step by step.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Coventry's contribution to transportation Essay

Coventry's contribution to transportation - Essay Example The automotive industry in the United Kingdom- UK dates back to the end of the 19th century. During the 1950’s, the car manufacturing industry in the UK became the second largest in the globe falling behind to the United States (NAIGT 2008, p.89). At the time, the UK was the largest exporter of cars. In the decades following the 1950’s, the industry faced greater competition from other car manufacturing nations such as France, Japan and Germany. This led to a fall in growth of the industry. By 2008, statistics showing the production of cars by volume ranked the UK as the 12th largest car manufacturer. As competition in car making rose during after 1950, so too did the number of foreign car manufactures rise in the country (Tom, Jason & Clive 2012, p. 54). Companies such as BMW, TATA, and Volkswagen Group invaded the industry. Foreign company groups also claim a large percentage of ownership in traditional British car brands such as Rover, Triumph and Riley (Wells 2010, p. 103). Below is a picture of a Triumph Dolomite sprint car that got manufactured between 1973 and 1980; The Coventry motor industry has experienced innovations and inventions over the years as it faces competition and pressures from the market. The industry has invested heavily in modular design and technology in response to other competing automotive firms in other countries (Tom, Jason & Clive 2012, p. 13). ... This becomes possible through the industry’s extremely sophisticated systems integration skills. The industry has also seen massive technological progress since its inception. The industry has incorporated vital features to ensure vehicle safety (Tom & David 2000, p. 118). Technological progress has also seen the industry focus on issues such as fuel economy, environmental impact, comfort, performance and versatility. Technology and modern management skills have led to transformation of the industry through cutting edge design analysis, lightweight materials, extension of digital control to enable most car functions. Coventry has recently assisted in developing cars that embrace green technology such as electric cars and hydrogen powered vehicles (NAIGT 2008, p.65). The image below represents the technological advancements in green technology by the industry; Part 2: Report One sector that makes up the Coventry automotive industry gets to be research and development- R&D. the efforts of Coventry’s R&D get geared towards a technology roadmap that makes use of relevant resources to build cars that meet the consumers’ demands and environmental demands. This paper will analyze the R&D segment of Coventry’s automotive industry to determine its strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Success of the industry’s R&D will ensure that the industry remains competitive and relevant in the current global automotive industries (NAIGT 2008, p.59). The current global targets in transport aim towards decarbonizing the system by 2050, improving vehicle performance, safety and designs. R&D expenditures represent key information on the sustainability of an industry. The R& D represent an